The Ninth Annual Herzliya Conference on the Balance of Israel’s National Security and Resilience was held on the campus of the Interdisciplinary Center (IDC) Herzliya in early February 2009, on the eve of elections for the 18th Knesset. In the presence of renowned experts, dignitaries and decision-makers from Israel and abroad, the Prime Ministerial candidates presented their visions for the future of Israel. Over the course of the three-day Conference, participants discussed the central challenges Israel faces on the national, regional and global levels and examined a series of strategies and policy alternatives. It was not easy to deflect the impression that Israel’s governance capacities are insufficient for the crucial decisions to be made vis-à-vis the global, regional, and national processes, which bear significant repercussions for all the dimensions of Israel’s national security and resilience.