In keeping with its tradition, the 19th Herzliya Conference focused its deliberations on two main pillars: the defense and strategic challenges and threats facing Israel in the region and domestic risks to Israel’s national resilience. The Herzliya Conference was held in early July 2018. In the short time since, some of the assessments examined during the Conference are already being witnessed across the region. The escalatory potential between Iran and the United States is growing, especially in the aftermath of Soleimani's targeting. Iran’s efforts against Israel have not been contained at the strategic level despite operational gains in obstructing Iran’s entrenchment in Syria. The Middle East remains in a state of instability and uncertainty as recent events in Iraq, Lebanon and Iran demonstrate. Arab countries remain skeptical whether America is fully committed to their security and regional stability. At the same time, and despite the growing Iranian threat, the Arab countries continue to underscore the centrality of the Israeli-Palestinian conflict and despite common interests and threats will not pursue normalization of relations under present conditions.