Interview with Prof. Dafna Kariv, Permanent Academic Faculty at the Adelson School of Entrepreneurship, Head of the Final Capstone Program and Head of the School Research Committee.
Following the publication of the article, "Start-Up and Small Business Life", we spoke with Prof. Dafna Kariv about the research, its process and its results:
"I was asked to review and analyze trends in the development process of startups, through the research aspect, in order to make it accessible to researchers, student populations and academic staff. The aim was to use key theories and models relevant to startup development. Discuss their relevance, examine which models are still relevant today, what helps to understand the development of a startup and which of these models became irrelevant with the research development.
For the purpose of this study I have selected the six leading theories and models in the research literature in entrepreneurship, i.e. the most quantitatively cited and those who were published in the highest rated journals (A + ,A;). I have shown through each of these theories and models how it is reflected in entrepreneurial development. For example, one of the models I presented - Necessity / Opportunity, is a model from the late 80s - and it was important to examine its relevance today. I reviewed the research literature and noticed that although there is some decrease in the use of this model in research, there is a very high increase in looking at the model in two specific contexts: 1 Immigration - Entrepreneurs who enter a new location, enter the world of entrepreneurship out of necessity. This is very relevant in the renewed world of immigration, of the trends that happened in Syria, immigration in Europe, etc. 2. Gender - Many women enter the world of entrepreneurship out of interest and in purpose to break the glass of ceiling, out of desire to achieve the opportunities that entrepreneurship holds or woman that want to combine family and career. In contrast to an 'ancient' model, I examined more up-to-date models but borrowed them from parallel disciplines such as strategy, for example: 'Dynamic capabilities' and 'Resource based view' and questioned their relevance, which has become enhanced in the dynamic and changing world. I have also presented theories that in recent years began to gain momentum and they reflect the dynamic world of the ecosystem very much. For example, a relatively new theory in the entrepreneurship world the 'Bricolage', a theory that is very relevant to entrepreneurship that deals with how to build the very early stages of a venture like MVP through minimum resources. It turns out that it is possible to build ventures this way as well and not "only" through raising significant capital in the early stages.
The conclusion I have reached is that a number of entrepreneurial theories are the cornerstones, basic theories and relevant to understanding the dynamics of venture development. They are seldom used but they still form the basis of entrepreneurship. Another conclusion is that there is mutuality, some of the theories are so basic that they themselves have managed to change the market - have created certain trends in the labor work force, with Covid-19 further illustrating this. And secondly, there are certain trends that are happening in the market and they are the ones that are impacting the theories in entrepreneurship. For example: while in Corona resources have dwindled; fewer investments, less customers (because of lower purchasing power) and therefore to continue to grow the venture one needs as they coined in the law 'Baker and Nelson' in 2005:
"Making do by applying combinations of resources at hand to new problems and opportunities"
This is how one can understand the conduct of startups during Corona in the appropriate eradication.
Reciprocity is a very important trend, because so far in entrepreneurial research we have relied on theories from other disciplines and slowly we are beginning to crystallize as a significant academic vertical. As researchers in the field we must write as many articles as possible based on known theories with use from the fields of entrepreneurship and then the theories themselves make an adaptation to the world of entrepreneurship. The more research we have, the stronger the discipline of entrepreneurship will be and more articles will be published in reputable journals."
Start-Up and Small Business Life / Dr. Dafna Kariv
Kariv, D. (2020). Start-up and small business life. Encyclopedia of Creativity, Invention, Innovation and
Entrepreneurship, 2227-2236. doi:10.1007/978-3-319-15347-6_466
Start-ups and small businesses (SU&SB) refer to entrepreneurial businesses, with a focus on the early stages that hinge on innovation and provide new, wide-ranging value to their environment, including customers, suppliers, community, investors, etc. SU&SB are deemed promising trajectories to development and growth in business terms as well as within communities, both regional and global, by introducing innovation, creating new jobs, using advanced technology, facilitating upward social mobility, and stimulating innovative strategies and technologies. These are typically carried out by small teams, with constrained resources in a highly competitive environment.